Elexoma GETTING STARTED (FULL TEXT)
You can open and save our Quick Start Guide in PDF form here: Getting Started with Elexoma Booklet or read the full manual below:
Microcurrent therapy has been scientifically researched for more than 60 years. In fact, no fewer than three Nobel prizes were awarded to scientists researching the effects of microcurrent on living tissues. Over the course of the next couple of pages, I will share these and other findings with you. This booklet contains important information to help you get the most out of your Elexoma Medic™, so please read it carefully.
Should you have any problems or questions, please do not hesitate to contact us at. Remember: We are in the business of making you happy!
Now, sit back, take a deep breath and r-e-l-a-x… You have just made one of the best decisions of your life.
To your health!
Dr Frank Müller
CEO: Integrow Health (Pty) Ltd
Sole licensed distributor of the Elexoma Medic™
When you open the red cardboard box, you will find the following items:
A black zip-up carry case
A small, white cardboard box
Inside the black carry case:
The Elexoma Medic™ device
One set of earclip electrodes
Two sets of leads
Four self-adhesive electrodes in a foil pouch
Four rechargeable AAA batteries
A carry pouch to wear the Elexoma on your belt
A 36 page instruction manual
Inside the white cardboard box you will find:
A recharger with space for four AAA or AA batteries
Getting Started – The Basics
1. Switching on the Elexoma
The large, round silver button in the middle of the Elexoma is the ON-switch (among other things). Press the top half of the button and the Elexoma should make a shrill, piercing noise (assuming the batteries are in and charged). Sorry about the noise – you can shorten the duration of the “beep” by pressing the bottom half of the silver button shortly after the beeping begins. By the way, some devices lose their beep sound after a while (but they continue to function normally in all other respects). If this silence bothers you, you are more than welcome to return the device and we will send you a noisy one again.
2. Switching off the Elexoma
There is no OFF-switch. If the device is inactive for about 30 seconds, it will turn itself off.
3. The Display Screen
The Elexoma display screen can be somewhat confusing, but focus on four things only:
Once the Elexoma is on, the top half of the central silver button cycles through the 8 preset programm–es. Every time you press the top half of the central button, you will see a different number displayed to the left of the countdown timer (“1” in our example above). The preset programmes are discussed in some detail on page 11 of your Users manual. For now, all you need to know is that Programme 1 is used for CES and the other 7 programmes are used for MET. This is over-simplification, but this is a Quick-start guide, after all.
The countdown timer is preset for the various programmes. To start your treatment, press the bottom half of the central silver button. The countdown timer will start. If you press the bottom half of the central button a second time, while the countdown timer is running, a short double beep will signal the end of treatment and the countdown timer is reset to its default value.
Intensity is displayed in the bottom right hand corner of the screen. When treatment is initiated, it begins at 10 uAmp.
Battery level indicator
This is displayed just above the intensity setting, on the right hand side of the screen. It is not very accurate, unfortunately. You have about 15 hours of treatment life in the batteries after a single charge, so it is a good idea to recharge your batteries every three weeks or so (with normal use).
4. Plugging in the leads
At the top left corner of your Elexoma, there are two output channels, marked I and II. You can use either output channel to plug your treatment lead in (the Elexoma automatically detects which channel is “active”). You will find that the treatment lead fits in one way only. If you wish to use MET on two body areas at the same time, you can plug an MET lead in either channel. If you are using both channels at the same time, please note that you have to DOUBLE the current output to get the desired effect. In other words, if you want to treat two areas simultaneously with 600 uAmp, then you have to set the Elexoma to provide 1,200 uAmp. Rest assured: You cannot shock yourself! Note: You CANNOT run a CES and MET session at the SAME time.
5. Starting the programme
Once the electrodes are in place (see below), you can start the programme by pressing the BOTTOM half of the central button. The countdown timer will begin counting. If you want to stop a treatment session midway, for whatever reason, simply press the bottom half of the central button a second time.
6. Increasing the current
Intensity can only be changed once the session is running (countdown timer is counting down). You MUST increase the current to an effective level. This is done by pressing the Arrow Up on the right hand side of the device. Every time you press this button, the intensity will increase by 10 uAmp until you reach 200 uAmp. After that, intensity will increase in steps of 50 uAmp. You can also depress AND hold the Arrow Up key to increase the intensity more rapidly. The Arrow Down key, just below the Arrow Up key on the right, has the opposite effect.
7. What intensity should I use?
Most published CES research studies were conducted at either 100 uAmp or 200 uAmp. The reason for this is that such a level is so low that the human skin cannot feel it. In other words, some study participants can be actively treated and others can be given sham ‘ fake treatment – neither study participant would know which was which. This is done to eliminate the possibility of “positive thinking” influencing the research results. To get to the point: 200 uAmp for CES is quite enough to get effects. However, if you prefer to feel some tingling sensation at the contact points, you can increase the level beyond 200 uAmp. For MET, the optimal intensity is determined by increasing the intensity until you just-just can feel a tingling sensation. You can stop at this level.
8. Treatment duration
Treatment duration can only be altered once the countdown timer is running. It can be increased or decreased by the Arrow Up and Arrow Down keys on the left hand side of the device.
9. How long should I treat myself?
In general, you can accept the pre-set treatment times for each programme. One treatment a day is more than enough in most cases. To give you an idea of just how effective a treatment session is: some therapists using the Elexoma only give ONE half-hour treatment session a WEEK and they still report dramatic results. If you insist on using the Elexoma for longer than the pre-set time, then it is better to give yourself multiple treatments during the day, rather than one single, long treatment. The reason for this is that a cell can only be stimulated so much and then no more. Anything beyond that is wasted effort. Rather boost the cells periodically and then give them time to use that boost effectively instead of boosting them continually.
An exception to the above: If you are using the Elexoma to help you with studying, it is recommended to use CES at a low intensity (say, 100 uAmp) for a fairly long period (an hour or more) while you are studying. This will keep you focused and help you lay down fresh memories that are easy to recall later.
10. CES electrodes
The CES earclip electrodes have little clamps that you must fix on your earlobes. If you are wearing earrings, it is advisable to first remove them. Before clipping the electrodes onto your ears, wet the little bits of cloth with tap water. Salt water is best, but tap water works just fine. If the cloth is dry, there will be no or poor contact with the skin and no treatment will occur. If the electrodes are only partially wet, the contact surface will be reduced and you could feel a stinging sensation in your earlobes. The white ear felts are for comfort only – you can also treat yourself without them, the efficacy of the treatment will not be affected.
11. MET electrodes
The self-adhesive electrodes that are used for MET need to be handled with care to optimise their lifespan. They do NOT have to be made wet before use. Always replace them on the plastic counterfoil when you are not using them. Never pick them up by the “pigtail”, since the “tail” may pull out from the pad. Just use your finger to lift a corner and then peel the electrode off. When putting the electrodes on your body, make sure two electrodes do not touch each other – if they do, it will cause a short-circuit and no treatment will occur. More information on the care of your pre-gelled electrodes follows later.
12. Alarms and indicators
If the treatment circuit is broken (treatment lead not plugged in properly, electrodes not fixed properly, or not wet), an alarm will flash on the middle right of the display screen. If the intensity reaches 200 uAmp or more, the alarm will also be audible (very audible, in fact). If this happens, reposition the electrodes and make sure the treatment leads are properly plugged in.
13. What about the MP3 player and the SD card?
If you read through the User’s manual, you will see mention made of a built-in MP3 player, as well as SD-card functionality. Neither of these functions were activated by the manufacturer, which is why we never mention either of these in our advertising. The idea behind the SD card was that people could upload music and/or additional treatment programmes to the SD-card and then plug the card into the Elexoma. The firmware for this was never completed, however. Don’t worry about it. Your Elexoma has enough oomph in the pre-set 8 programmes to treat almost anything you can present it with.
14. When should I treat myself?
For most people, it is easiest to treat themselves in the morning, maybe during breakfast or while on the way to work. A few people report feeling tired after a treatment session and they are advised to treat themselves before bedtime. Overall, it does not matter WHEN you treat yourself, as long as it fits in with your lifestyle. The handy belt pouch makes it possible to carry the Elexoma with you while you are walking. Note: You can continue working on your computer while treating yourself – there is no interaction with the Elexoma.
15. During a treatment session
It is advised that you have your first CES treatment session while you are relaxed and sitting in an armchair. That way, you can assess the effects of CES on yourself much better. At higher intensities, some people report flashes of light, as if someone was taking flash photographs behind their back. This phenomenon is not dangerous and is simply the effect of electrons depolarising the retina, triggering it to report a false image. Treating yourself to a CES session while driving is done at your own risk. We do not recommend it.
16. Confusing things in the instruction manual
Are you still with me? Good. You are then probably one of those folks who actually read the User’s manual from cover to cover and inevitably phone me to ask two questions: “On pages 15 & 20 of the manual, it states that the red (positive) electrode must be placed on the right ear and the black (negative) electrode on the left ear. Is this correct?” Well, it doesn’t matter, since programme 1 is biphasic / alternating between positive and negative. So just ignore that please. Second question: “The manual (page 16) says I must replace the felt pads after EVERY treatment. Do I really have to?” No, that was intended for therapists, who treat many people with the same device. Only replace the white felt pads if they become contaminated or worn. Their chief purpose is for your comfort, nothing more.
That’s it for now. You should be able to get going now. MET electrode placements are set out on pages 19 to 33 of the User’s manual. Below, we describe various treatments for a range of afflictions.
(Almost) All about CES
CES, or Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation, refers to the application of microcurrent to the brain specifically. Some situations where CES may be beneficial are:
Depressed mood, loss or grief
Anger or irritability
Sleeplessness (insomnia), nightmares
Lack of concentration / shortened attention span
After a stroke or spinal cord injury
Lack of drive and motivation
There are many abbreviations used to refer to the action of applying electricity to the brain. Probably the most infamous one is ECT, or Electro-Convulsive Therapy. This one (wrongly) got really bad press in the best-seller book from the 60s, One Flew Over The Cuckoo’s Nest. With ECT, large doses of current are passed through the brain in a very short span of time. This “resets” the brain, which can improve certain mental conditions. However, it also causes all the muscles in the body to contract. In the early days of ECT, no muscle relaxants (or tranquilisers) were used and the force of the contracting muscles was sometimes so intense that bones snapped. Nowadays, muscle relaxants and tranquilisers help make ECT a safe and rapid alternative to drug therapy, but most people still associate it with its crude early use.
ECT achieves its effects by administering large doses of electricity over a short period of time. Research has shown, however, that giving small doses of electricity over longer periods of time is just as effective, if not more so. When it comes to electrotherapy, “less is more”. Even better, you don’t need to see a psychiatrist to get CES. Plus, you don’t need to see your friendly orthopaedic surgeon afterwards.
CES mostly refers to the application of Alternating Current to the brain (as distinct from Direct Current). In other words, the polarity of the two electrodes keeps on switching between positive and negative (and you thus do not need to take care which electrode is positive or negative). In bio-electronics, the word “biphasic” is used to refer to alternating current. One of the advantages of a biphasic current is that the local tissues don’t get polarised, thus reducing the risk of tissue damage. CES also typically employs low intensity currents, meaning the user hardly feels the flow of electricity.
CES is most commonly administered via the earlobes, although it can also be administered by sticking pre-gelled electrodes just behind the ears or on the shoulders.
The body is an electric organ. In fact, that is where the name “Elexoma” comes from. It is a combination of “Elec” for “electricity” and “soma”, the Greek word for “body”. Every chemical reaction in the body involves changes in electrical values and these are not merely accidental. The brain, nerves, muscles, blood vessels and glands all operate based on electrical balance and current flows. The currents involved are tiny, but essential for life. The “old school thinking” that used overwhelming electrical force to achieve therapeutic aims is dying out as new research increasingly proves that cells respond best to electricity that is in the same league as the normal bodily voltage and intensity.
Another abbreviation you may come across is tDCS. This stands for transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. As the name implies, a Direct (or monophasic) Current is applied to the brain instead of an Alternating Current. In such therapy, the placement of the positive and negative electrodes is can make a difference. Depending on where they are placed, different effects can be elicited. You can use your Elexoma for tDCS, but I won’t go into that detail here.
Now, let us get back to plain and simple CES.
Programme 1 on the Elexoma device is the classical CES programme. With the intensity somewhere between 200 uAmp and 550 uAmp (the maximum) you really don’t need more CES in a 24 hour period than the preset 25 minutes.
CES and Pain
Even if you bought the Elexoma for use on your body (such as for chronic pain), I recommend that you use the CES function, too. Why? Studies have shown a 92% increase in endorphins in the CSF. Endorphins are the body’s own pain-killers and the CSF (cerebro-spinal fluid) is the fluid that cushions the brain and spinal cord. Such an increase thus indicates that the production of endorphins in the brain has nearly doubled. As a result, pain perception virtually halves. Pain is a complex phenomenon and it has a large central (brain) component. Pain is not just caused by an injury, but also by the way the brain interprets pain signals coming from the injury site. If the brain is chock-full of endorphins, it will ignore much of the pain impulses coming from the injury site.
Please note what this means: It does NOT mean that the cause of the pain has been addressed, only that the pain itself has been subdued. In other words, CES treatment for pain is symptomatic, not curative. OK, painkillers do the same – they relieve the sensation of pain without addressing the cause of the pain. The difference is that painkillers have other side effects, some of them delaying wound healing. Other effects could even be fatal (such as stomach ulcers or blood dysfunctions). CES has none of these side effects, so you get the benefits without the damages of painkillers.
CES and Mood
CES also increases the levels of serotonin in the CSF. Sorry, another big word, but bear with me as I try to explain. Serotonin is one of your brain’s “feel good” messengers. If you have more serotonin floating in the CSF, it means your brain is in a good mood. One study showed a 61% increase in CSF-serotonin after only a single 20 minute treatment. This effect isn’t always clearly noticeable, but that is because of the way we rationalise our experiences. I’ve lost count of the number of times clients tell me, “I’m not sure if it’s the Elexoma, but I’m feeling really great since I started using it!” The effect is subtle, but undeniable. And the effect lasts for a couple of days after a single treatment – that’s powerful. So, to enhance your mood and to cope with stress, CES is a marvellous tool. It won’t “override” your personality or circumstances, but it will give you that extra little boost that often is all you need to get through a really hectic day.
CES and Attention Span
CES also increases your attention span. One study showed a remarkable 382% increase in attention and concentration span after a single treatment. In other words, you become more vigilant and aware of your surroundings during and after a CES treatment. There are many applications of this phenomenon, for example in sports where the athlete has to concentrate intently (e.g., archery, gymnastics, golf) or during studying. People with shortened attention span can also benefit from CES treatment.
Both CES and tDCS are remarkably beneficial in the prevention and treatment of headaches, including migraines. I won’t confuse you with tDCS settings now – let’s stick with programme 1 on the Elexoma. The next time you experience a headache, run programme 1 and see how the headache disappears in a matter of minutes. If you suffer from regular headaches, treat yourself daily and you will find the regularity, duration AND intensity of the headaches steadily decreasing over one or two months. Persist with daily treatment for a couple of months and your regular headaches could be something of the past.
CES and Insomnia
And now, just before you fall asleep, let me talk about sleeplessness. CES increases daytime vigilance, but it also helps people to sleep deeper and more restfully at night. This is very useful for people who have difficulty falling asleep, or who wake up in the middle of the night and then struggle to fall asleep again. However, restoring sleep in cases where a person has been suffering from sleeplessness for months or years is not easy. If you suffer from long-term sleep problems, you may have to treat yourself for a number of months before you notice any real difference.
CES and Jetlag
The Elexoma also works like magic for jetlag – simply treat yourself to Programme 1 before you depart, halfway through your journey and then after arrival at your destination (just before going to sleep). Within one day, your sleep-wake cycle will be back to normal. Sweet.
(Almost) all about MET
MET, or Micro-Electric Therapy, refers to the use of microcurrent to treat the body. Typical situations where you might want to use MET are:
Chronic backache, arthritis or other chronic pains.
Acute pain due to a sprain, muscle tear, bone fracture, wound, etc.
Wound healing, whether an open wound, bruise, sprain, fracture, etc.
Refreshing of the whole body, e.g. after strenuous exercise or before a sports event.
By now, you are probably tired of all the TLAs (Three-Letter Acronyms). Sorry, but here’s one more: MET, short for Microcurrent Electrical Therapy. MET refers to the application of low-level electrical pulses to the body to achieve therapeutic outcomes. Technically, CES is also a form of MET, but the indications and proposed mechanism of action are different in the case of CES. As a result, MET is almost always used to refer to treatment of the body, not the brain.
The “micro” in “microcurrent” refers to current intensities that are mostly less than 1 milliAmp (or 1,000 uAmp, as it is displayed on your Elexoma’s screen). These levels are in line with your body’s own electrical charge.
As with CES, MET can be applied either as Direct (monophasic) Current (DC) or as Alternating (biphasic) Current (AC). Your Elexoma Medic has no less than 7 preset MET programmes (more than any other microcurrent device on the planet). You will find details of each programme on Page 11 of your User’s manual. I won’t rehash page 11 here, but let me group the programmes together in terms of what to use when – that is all you REALLY need to know.
There are essentially two reasons why you would want to use MET: injury and pain. Under these two headings, there are a number of sub-headings:
1. Wound healing
1.1 Skin lesions (Acute / chronic)
1.2 Muscle injuries (Acute / chronic)
1.3 Nerve injuries (Acute / chronic)
2. Pain control
2.1 Acute pain
2.2 Chronic pain
Before I jump in and explain the programmes, just a note about how microcurrent therapy works. You may safely skip this section if you want, but I find it fascinating, so bear with me as I elaborate.
The 1997 Nobel Prize for chemistry was awarded to a Chinese researcher, Dr Ngok Cheng, who in 1982 published a paper showing how microcurrent stimulation increased the level of ATP in cells by 500%. Oops, I did it again! I used a TLA! In this case, I am not going to explain it, however, since ATP refers to the name of a molecule and your eyes will probably glaze over if I start mentioning the names of molecules. ATP is no ordinary molecule (if there is such a thing as an ordinary molecule, that is). ATP is the body’s energy currency. Like money, you can’t do business without it. The body’s cells manufacture ATP and then various cell processes use that ATP for power. Without ATP, no reactions can take place inside the cell and the cell dies. Every day, you and I need some 75 kg of ATP to survive. Yes, that’s right: 75 kg!
“Hey, wait a minute!” I hear you saying, “I hardly weigh 75 kg, so where do I get 75 kg of ATP from?” Aha, I’m glad you asked. ATP is not a use-once-throw-away-twice kind of molecule. It is quite possibly the most recycled item in the universe. Once an ATP molecule has been used to provide energy, it is recycled, re-energised and re-deployed. Every molecule of ATP in your body gets recycled approximately 1,200 times a day. Yes: A DAY. That’s once every minute, give or take.
Now let’s get back to Dr Ngok Cheng and his Nobel prize. Do you understand why the Nobel prize awards committee got so excited about his research? ATP is mostly formed in the presence of carbohydrates and oxygen. If you don’t eat, you die. If you don’t breathe, you die. Why? Because your cells can’t manufacture ATP. Dr Cheng’s research showed a new way of regenerating ATP, one that did not primarily involve oxygen or carbohydrates. A weak current was all it took to increase ATP levels in the cell by 500% or more. And that is what the Elexoma is all about.
What’s the big deal? Well, with all that ATP inside your cells, they are able to do the work they need to do. All the body’s cells are under continuous attack from all sorts of villains. It takes a lot of ATP for the cell to repair itself. Sometimes, cell damage is so extensive that the cell has no energy left to do anything else (think how you feel after a Washing & Ironing Monday…). That is when we experience Loss of Function, for example, when an ankle is sprained, or a muscle is bruised. The pain and swelling is the body’s way of keeping the affected area still while cell repair takes place. Every time you move, the pain tells you to stop.
Now, if you apply MET to the injured area, the MET increases the ATP in the injured cells. They repair themselves much faster (think 500%) and tell the brain, “All is OK, you can switch off the pain report and drain the swelling!” (OK, that’s not quite true, but you get the picture). And this, my dear Watson, is how MET works for pain and healing. Thank you for listening so attentively. The lecture is over.
Now, let’s get down to practicalities:
Leads and Electrodes
You will have noticed that you received two sets of treatment leads (cables) and two pairs of pre-gelled electrodes. This is to enable you to treat two areas of the body at once (if need be, to help you save time). Just take note that, if you use both cables at the same time, the actual current being applied to the body is only HALF of what is being displayed on the Elexoma’s screen. In other words, if the display says you are getting 300 uAmp, you are only getting 150 uAmp PER TREATMENT SITE. Most of the time, however, you will probably only need to treat one area at a time, in which case the display is correct as shown.
For Monophasic programmes, remember that the colour coding on the treatment cables becomes important: Red is positive (anode) and black is negative (cathode) (I use “red lips” and “a black mood” to remind me what goes for what…). The electrode placements for treating various body parts is outlined in quite some detail from page 19 to 32 of your manual. By the way, the picture for CES on page 20 is confusing – programme 1, our CES programme, is biphasic, so it does not really matter which colour goes on which ear.
Looking after your electrodes
Your pre-gelled electrodes need a lot of loving care. Their expected lifespan is three months, if you use them every day, but with careful use you can use them for much longer. To get the electrode off the counterfoil, do NOT pick it up by the “tail”, but rather peel a corner off with your finger and then lift it up by the corner. If the electrodes lose their stickiness, you can rejuvenate them by rubbing a drop of dishwashing soap into the sticky side, then rinsing the soap off with cold water. Stick the wet electrode back onto the counterfoil and put it all in the fridge overnight. The next morning, the stickiness ought to be back to square one.
Try to keep electrodes patient-specific. In other words, let one person use one set of pre-gelled electrodes only (you can always order extra from us, if needed). This is specially true in cases where open wounds are being treated. However, this is only a recommendation.
For all the programmes outlined below, the optimal intensity is one that you just-just can NOT feel. In other words, increase the intensity until you feel the pulse, then decrease the intensity by a click of the Arrow Down button. Don’t think you HAVE to feel it for the current to work. For pain treatment, higher intensities may be needed – let your pain guide you. You cannot harm yourself with the Elexoma!
1. Wound healing
1.1 Skin lesions (Acute / chronic)
To assist wound healing in recent wounds, you can use either programme 2 or 4. These two programmes are identical in all respects, except in their duration (15 min vs 25 min). Treat for longer time for larger wounds. One treatment per day is all that is needed, but you can treat for longer or more often a day if you wish.
Example: Surgery – if you are going in for elective surgery, treat the area to be cut a few hours BEFORE you go into theatre, and then daily after surgery.
Electrode placement: Any placement that brackets the injured site is good. It does not even have to be close to the wound site, as long as the current flows through the wound site. Positive and negative placement not so important here.
Healing chronic wounds: Use programme 3 and bracket the wound site with the electrodes. Again, the electrodes do not need to be close to the wound site, as long as the current flows through the injured area. Once a day is enough. You should see significant results within four to six weeks. As with acute wounds, the placement of positive and negative electrodes relative to the wound site is NOT critically important.
1.2 Muscle injuries (Acute / chronic)
For acute muscle injuries, use programme 5. Electrode placement depending on the muscle group affected (see the manual for optimal placement options). If programme 5 does not help much within the first day, proceed to programme 8. Programme 8 is identical to programme 5, except that it allows you to use much higher intensities of current (which penetrate deeper into the muscle). For larger muscle groups and larger injuries, programme 8 will be the better option. Programme 8 is also useful when more than one site needs to be treated.
1.3 Nerve injuries (Acute / chronic)
For recent nerve injuries, use either programme 4, 5 or 8 (depending on how deep below the skin the injury is and how much pain is involved – higher programme for greater injury). Electrode placement as for other injuries in 1.1.
For older nerve injuries, use programme 3 or programme 6, depending on how much pain is experienced (programme 6 is the “stronger” programme). Electrode placement as above.
In cases of spinal cord injury or nerve palsy, place the black electrode on a limb below the injury site and the red electrode above the injury site, so that the current will flow along the nerve through the injury site. Programme 6 is recommended, once or twice daily. Nerve regrowth will be accelerated, but can still take 3 to 6 months, depending on a number of factors. The first symptoms of regrowth taking place is often a “pins and needles” feeling in the area supplied by the injured nerve.
2. Pain control
2.1 Acute pain
Treat acute pain with programme 2 or 4, depending on severity. If programme 4 does not help, then programme 8 is your friend.
For menstrual cramps, use programme 2 and place the electrodes on either side of the waist.
2.2 Chronic pain
Treat chronic pain with either programme 3 or 6, depending on severity of pain.
For pain due to joint problems (arthritis, hip replacement, etc), use programme 7. You can order smaller electrodes if you wish, to treat painful finger joints.
And that’s it for now!
(Dr) Frank Muller
CEO: Integrow Health (Pty) Ltd
PO Box 4075, George East, 6539, South Africa
T 011 083 82 82
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R. C. Cork, P. Wood, N. Ming, C. Shepherd, J. Eddy & L. Price : The Effect of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) on Pain Associated with Fibromyalgia . The Internet Journal of Anesthesiology. 2004 Volume 8 Number 2.
Shealy CN, Cady RK, et al., Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma Neurochemicals: Response to Cranial Electrostimulation, J Neurol Orthop Med Surg, 1998, 18, pp 94-97.
Ngok Cheng, M.D. et al., “The Effects of Electric Currents on ATP Generation, Protein Synthesis, and Membrane Transport in Rat Skin,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, No. 171, Nov.-Dec. 1982, pp. 264-271.